Lichens (pronounced /ˈlaɪkən/, sometimes /ˈlɪtʃən/)
 Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2nd ed. 1989.
 Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary Second Edition, page 731. Cambridge University Press, 2005
1. 作者(?) 先由亦稱作地衣的藍綠藻開始談起，不懂其邏輯？或只是剛好有一樣的別名。我也很難說什麼，也許我是地域性地太過主觀。但似乎與其詞源無涉，除非有古書專指這些藍綠藻(而非現在的稱呼)，或者能證明這個稱呼更早，已超過後面的記錄(陳藏器(681~757)，唐代)。
文中所提的日本學者有二，其文獻：<1>. 久保 輝幸 (KUBO Teruyuki)，2009。Lichenは如何にして地衣と翻訳されたか。Journal of history of science, Japan. Series II, 48(249): 1-10。(How Lichen Was Translated as Chii [in Japanese])
摘要如下：Chii, the Japanese term for 'lichen', is widely used in contemporary East Asia. However, precisely when and by whom this term was first used to refer to lichen is not known. In addition, Japanese botanists from the 1880s to the 1950s had doubts regarding whether Chii was an accurate translation of lichen, given that Chii originally referred to moss that grows on the ground, whereas most species of lichens grow on barks of trees or on rocks. In this paper, the author shows that Li Shanlan and A. Williamson et al., in the late Qing dynasty of China, first used the term Chii to refer to lichen in Zhiwuxue, published in 1858. In Japan, Tanaka Yoshio, who was influenced by Zhiwuxue, first used the term Chii in 1872. However, further investigations led to the discovery that ITO Keisuke translated lichen as Risen in 1829. In 1836, UDAGA WA Yoan also translated lichen as Risen by using a different kanji (Chinese character) to represent sen. In 1888, in his article, MIYOSHI Manabu suggested a new equivalent term, Kisoukin, to refer to lichen (algae-parasitized fungi). In the article, he proposed the term Kyosei as the Japanese translation of symbiosis. Ever since the late 1880s, Kyosei has been used as the Japanese biological term for symbiosis.<2>. 似乎還沒發現作者名字，標題：《地衣の名物学的研究》。這是一本極詳盡討論在名物學裡地衣一詞的相關考證。等我讀完吧~~